Proto Uto-Aztecan Subanalysis
Part 3--Phoneme Level Morphology

Arie Poldervaart
Summer Institute of Linguistics
Friends of Uto-Aztecan Conference(FUAC), 1989

copyright 2001
by Arie Poldervaart
all rights reserved




This paper is a follow-up of the papers I gave at the 1984, 1987, and 1987 FUAC.

In 1984 I demonstrated that words in Northern Paiute are made up of one syllable morphemes. That paper contained about 400 examples. (This information is also published in the work by Dick, Williams, and Poldervaart). In 1987 and 1988, I extended this to proto Uto-Aztecan. I demonstrated that the same slot system and same morphemes account for both Paiute and the proto-language. The 1987 paper gave the subanalysis of almost all of the 87 body part terms in Miller's 1967 Cognate Sets. The 1988 paper gave the subanalysis of the miscellaneous nouns in Miller's 1987 Cognate Sets.

This paper is an attempt to establish the meaning of individual phonemes. The syllable level morphemes established in the previous 3 papers are broken into constituent phoneme level morphemes. Although the analysis is based on the entire language family, I have only

given examples from Northern Paiute (Yerington dialect). These are in the practical orthography used in Paiute. The barred i sound is written with a u, u is written as oo, glottal stop is written with ', the a-i or e-i diphthong is sometimes written i. The remainder of the Paiute orthography is fairly straight- forward.

The syllable morphemes seem to be stable over the entire language family. Thus the process of forming new syllables from constituent phoneme morphemes has probably been stable since Proto Uto Aztecan times.

This analysis bears some resemblance to componential analysis. It differs mainly in that the categories are emic to the language family.

There are at least 24 different prefix and stem formative slots. The same syllable will take on different meanings in different slots.



There are several changes in my thinking about the slot system from my previous papers. First, the system of prefix formative slots may be different for each language in the family.

The stem formative slots only produce morphemes with verbal meanings. If the speakers of a Uto-Aztecan language want to use one of these morphemes not as a verb, they bring it out to one of the prefix formative slots. In these slots the morpheme can become a noun, pronoun, adjective, adverb, or functor (passive, reciprocal, unspecifier etc). It is certain that the noun slots (Location, Instrumental, Objective) exist throughout the language family. At this time I am not prepared to demonstrate what other prefix slots exist throughout the language family.

In a word (esp if noun, verb or adjective) there are 12 stem formative slots. This is a revision of my previous listing of 10 stem formative slots. The additions to the list are CAL (Causative Action Location) and RAL (Resultant Action Location). CAL is the old OD slot relabeld as a stem formative slot instead of a prefix formative slot. RAL is added to preserve the symmetry. It only has a couple filler morphemes. It is obligatory to have a filler in at least one of the 12 stem formative slots. All of the stem formative slots are verbal in nature. It is not obligatory to have fillers in any of the prefix formative slots.

Abbreviations are given for each of these slots in parentheses. The slots are listed in the order of their occurrence.


1. Want to do verb action. (W)
2. UNSP (U) Makes verbs intransitive.
3. PASSIVE (P) Reflexive is a special case meaning of the passive.
4. Make action happen. (M)
5. RCPR (R) Reciprocal.

The following three prefix slots have been referred to as one group as instrumental prefixes. Because often several of these co-occur in one word, they must be considered three separate slots. One syllable can occur in all three slots with similiar meanings.

6. Locational (L) Location of the verb action.
7. Instrumental (I) An instrument used to do the verb action.
8. Objective (O) Shows the object of the verb action.
9. Causative (C) Cause the verb action to happen.
10. Adjective (ADJ) Adjective meaning.
11. Quantifier (Q) Quantifier meaning.
12. Adverbial (ADV) Fillers have adverbial meaning.



The following ten slots follow a pattern of causative action followed by resultant action. Note that the slots from these two parts are symmetrical. Anyone of these slots can occur by itself. But the descriptions help explain the relationship when several of these slots do co-occur.

13. Causative action direction (CAL)
14. Causative action direction (CAD)
15. Causative action (CA)
16. Causative action manner (CAM)
17. Causative action state (CAS)
18. Resultant action direction (RAL)
19. Resultant action direction (RAD)
20. Resultant action (RA)
21. Resultant action manner (RAM)
22. Resultant action state (RAS)
23. Objective state (OS) Shows if action is on an object, action termination etc.
24. Action termination (AT) Shows if verb action is terminated, reversed or repeated etc.



This analysis has divided the consonant morphemes into 4 sets and the vowel morphemes into 7 sets. Each set of morphemes contains 1 or 2 (occasionally 0) morphemes for each consonant or vowel.

The 4 sets of consonant morphemes are:

1. Position
2. Action/creation
3. Manner of increasing or decreasing a mass
4. Body function

The 7 sets of vowel morphemes are:

1. shapes
2. directions
3. action/activity curves
4. location/material/time
5. energy(light,heat,sound,etc)
6. ADJ(size,completeness,etc)
7. body functions

The meanings of each phoneme level morpheme shifts often from exact opposites, depending on the slot containing the syllable level morpheme. This shifting is only slightly understood at this point.



The consonant position morphemes all have slightly different meanings. The following comparison will illustrate the differences better than the glosses of the morphemes. The morphemes are somewhat different depending on whether action is parallel or at an angle to the surface.

A. Parallel to the surface

With action parallel to the surface of an object:

1. *m or *p may be at or slightly below the surface. eg mea `walk'
where the feet may sink into the mud.
2. *c is on the surface. eg matsu'a `wipe a table'.
3. *n or *t is just slightly above the surface. eg taneka `wear
shoes' where the n shows the surface is right next to the foot.
4. *y is more above the surface. eg kwasueya `put on a shirt' where
a shirt fits much looser than a shoe.
5. *s is far above the surface. eg posagu `bridge' where the bridge
may be far above the water.

B. At an angle to the surface
With action at an angle to the surface of an object:

1. *m or *p can extend most of the way through an object, and slightly
beyond the surface of an object on one side. eg tubbooge `cave'
where the po shows a hole in one side of the mountain, but not
the other side.
2. *n or *t can go all the way through an object extending slightly
outside the object on both sides. eg nobe-ggwitoo `go through
a house'. The too shows motion all the way through the house.
3. *k is action totally within the object. eg payutsenga `water
moving'. The nasalization of the k seems to show less direct
motion than a ka would. This is the only difference that I
can see nasalization making and this is not real clear.
4. *c is action near the surface of the object, extending slightly
beyond the surface both on the inside and outside. eg ggupatzedoo
5. *h is action which does not penetrate the surface of the object.
eg tudohewe-noo `crowbar' where something is pried off of the
surface, but the surface is not penetrated.
6. *w is action which extends from slightly inside the surface to
far beyond the surface of the object. eg kwase `tail'
7. *l is action around the perimeter of an object. eg nate `belt'
(*l --> n in Northern Paiute)



The following is a list of the phoneme level morphemes with an example from Northern Paiute for each:




*a `combination of diff entities'
with *k `hold{connect}/cut'
*ka CA `break-apart,cut' taka `arrowhead' NP
*ka RA `dispose-of,trash' tuhaga `arroyo' NP

*i `small area around center of reference,strip'
with *' `unspecified' *'i `strip' ego `tongue' NP

*o `sphere or cylinder shape'
with *p `be separate'
*po CA `twist,spin,rotation-from-outside-curve'
maboodooe `roll up cigarette' NP

*e `volume sealed off by a plane'
with *p `surface of body' *pe L `skin,fur,surface layer'
puhu `skin, fur' NP



*a `high,tall,straight'
with *n `go thru' *na CAM `stick-out,be-visible'
moona `head sticking out of water' NP
*e `object/action perpendicular/at angle'
with *w `go around, on ground' *we RAD `up-and-down'
kuggwu `dog jumps up and gets bird, pick up with mouth' NP
*i `go at some angle'
with *w `go around, on ground'
*wi CAD `change-path,opposite-directions'
wekea `meet on road' NP
*o `under, down'
with *t `hold down/lift up' *to CAD `go-under' tooha `under' NP



*a `action REALized/increase intensity with time'
CAx basic action
RAx integration or accumulation of effects of action
OS accumulation or effects or completion of action
AT action reaches completion
with *p protect/destroy with a-action REAL forms
*pa CA `hit, slap' and *pa RA `break, destroy'
mapatse'e `slap' mapa'a `break with hand' NP

*e `action on&off'
CAx and RAx stopping and starting of action
AT repetition of action
with *' `unspecified' '*e `sleep'
uwe `sleep' NP
*'e CA `be-motionless,sleep'

*e `small change at time'
CAx small amount of change
RAx accumulation of change
with *c `circle-around'
*ce CAS go-back-and-forth,double'
tsaddutsunge-wunu `rock a baby' NP
*ce RAS `go-around-whole-area'
tokatsupua `dark' NP

*i `REAL/intensity rises then falls'
CAx, RAx realization of action
OS, AT state after action
with *n `grow/break off'
*ni AT `release'
mootsoga'ne `blink (both eyes)' NP
*ni CAS `pile-up,contact'
natzakune-ta `tie up PL, stitches sewn by doctor' NP

*o `impulse type action'
with *t `action thru obj'
*to CAM push-hard patoggwaka `flood, break dam' NP
*o `dwindle down,be small,expire'
with *p `fill up/split off'
*po CAM `slow-flow,leak,splatter-out,separate'
poogi'hoo `something that splatters' NP
with *k `do to produce state (of vowel)'
*ko RA `make-inactive,kill'



*a `undetermined'
with *' `unspecified' 'a INDEF PRONOUN NP
*a `unknown'
with *h `do,be,make,test,try-out' haka `who' NP
*i `known'
with *' `unspecified' e `my' NP
*i `close'
with *' `unspecified' esoo `close DEM' NP
*o `in body'
with *' `unspecified' ohe `cough' NP
*o `remote'
with *' `unspecified' oosoo `far DEM' NP
*e `possessed,personal reference'
with *' `unspecified' u `you' NP
*e `essence'
with *pe L `skin' bbuupe `blood' NP



*a `energy release(pushing, light, sound)'
with *t `use energy to change' *ta CA `light,heat,appear'
taba `sun' NP
*i `communication by energy(esp speech)'
with *w `action-with-intellect-or-emotion'
*wi CAS `say' tuukwehe `say, explain' NP
*o `effects of energy release(heat,discoloration,decomposed material)'
with *' `unspecified' *'o ADJ brown otu `brown' NP
*e `discomfort from energy change'
with *s `perceive mentally' *se ADJ cold tasuni `freeze feet' NP



*a `be/make soft/flexible'
with *k `hold{connect}/cut' *ka CA eat,gnaw tuka `eat' NP
*i `small'
with *c `duplicate,keep doing' *ci AT DIM naatse'e `boy' NP
*o `complete'
with *n `include whole-area' *no Q `all,anything'
no'o'yoona `all, everything' NP
*e `very much,excessive'
with *' `unspecified' unu `very' NP



*a `stress,kill(CA)/restore(RA)'
CAx `stress,kill'
RAx `restore'
with *y `create/destroy life,life forces'
*ya CAS `stress,die,destroy' yae `stress, die' NP
*i `heal/hurt'
with *' `unspecified' *'i RA `maim,hurt' nama'e `fight,hurt' NP
with *w `length of action/obj/time' *wi CAS restore wawe `recover'NP
*o `sense'
with *p ` act on body surface' *po RA `see' poonne `see' NP



*c `be-at-body-extremity(time-or-space)'
with *o `sphere/cylinder shape' *co L `head' tso'atze `dandruff' NP
*k `high on body'
with *o `sense' *ko L `face' koba `face' NP
*m `stimulate body'
with *a `unknown' *ma RA `taste' kama `taste' NP
*n `act on self'
with *e `possessed,personal reference'
*ne U `first-person-singular' nu `I' NP
*p `act on body surface'
with *o `sense' *po RA `see' poonne `see' NP
*s `perceive mentally(neg=CA, pos=RA)'
with *o `impulse type action'
*so L `think' soobbedaggwadoo `think' NP
*t `act regarding self/person'
with *o `sphere or cylinder shape'
*to CA `stoop' tomohabu `stoop and look' NP
*w `action-with-intellect-or-emotion'
with *a `unknown'
*wa CAM `recognize' soobbedaggwadoo `think' NP
*y `create life,life forces'
with *o `effects of energy release' *yo CA `warm' yooe `warm' NP activity/creation
*c `duplicate,keep doing'
with *i `small' *ci AT DIM naatse'e `boy' NP
*h `do,be,make,test,try-out'
with *a `unknown' *ha U `QUESTION,what' haka `who' NP
*k `do to produce state(of vowel)'
with *i `close' *ki CA `come-toward' kemma `come' NP
*l `move around'
with *o `remote' *lo CAS carry,move pano'o `carry water' NP
*m `cause/initiate intransitive action'
with *a `REAL/increase intensity with time'
*ma C `causative' masua `plant' NP
*n `be in state during action'
with *o `impulse type action'
*no RAM `hard-effort-for-while' maboodogano'o `trot' NP
*k `produce state of vowel'
with *a `stress/kill(CA)/restore(RA)'
*ga AT `rest,restore' songapanga `rest' NP
*p `cause repetitively/initiate'
with *a `REAL/increase intensity with time'
*pa OS `action-realized' -pana `REAL' NP
*p `protect/destroy'
with *a `REAL/increase intensity with time'
*pa CA `hit,slap' mapatse'e `slap' NP
*s `be/make same/consistent'
with *a `REAL/increase intensity with time'
*sa ? `always' ooosabba `always' NP
*t `use energy to change/create'
with *a `energy release'
*ta CA `light,heat,appear' tatza `sun' NP
*t `intensify,duplicate,do-completely'
with *a `REAL/increase intensity with time'
*ta AT `repeated-or-plural-action' taposeta `make tracks' NP
*w `length of action/obj/time'
with *a `REAL/increase intensity with time'
*wa RAL `be-far,far' kwinga'a `far' NP
*y `temporary action'
with *o `impulse type action'
*yo RAM `repetitive' tapayoo'e `break to pieces w/ foot' NP



*c `go back & forth in area parallel to surface'
with *e `small change at time' *ce CAS `go-back&forth,double'
tsaddutsunge-wunu `rock a baby'
*c `go perpendicular thru area'
with *i `small area around center of reference'
*ci CAM `emerge,poke,stab' tsebe `pluck chicken'
*h `action {constrain around layer (CA)},to/from layer(RA)'
with *e `action on&off' *he L `breeze' huggwa `breeze' NP
*k `go/be/hold up'
with *o `remote' *ko CAD `go-above' kooba `above' NP
*l `surround'
with *a `undetermined' *la CAS `fasten-around,surround'
nate `belt' NP
*m `come out, go in'
with *a `combination of diff entities' *ma L `hand,palm'
mi `hand' NP
*m `cover,go-around-surface,be-in-middle'
with *o `remote' *mo CAD `go-to-middle,point-where-divides'
naamooggwitu `middle' NP
*n `include whole-area'
with *i `small area around center of reference'
*ni CAD `cover-with' tsonega `put on hat' NP
*n `go through'
with *a `high,tall,straight' *na CAM `stick-out,be-visible'
moona `head sticking out of water'
*k `go inside/random'
with *a `REAL/increase intensity with time'
*ga RAS `move,fluid-motion,move-through'
payutsenga `movement of water' NP
*k `go down'
with *o `under, down' *go RAS `go-down,bring-down'
tobongo `Shoshoni (go down into canyons)' NP
*p `cross-surface,in,out(CA)'
with *o `sphere or cylinder shape'
*po CA `through-hole' tseposa `thread needle' NP
*p `along-surface(RA)'
with *o `effects of energy release' *po RA `write'
tubo'o `write'
*s `be above/on surface'
with *a `combination of diff entities'
*sa CAD `go-above' posagu `bridge'
*s `extrude thru surface'
with *i `small area around center of reference'
*si L `intestines,cylinder,navel' seboodoo `intestines' NP
*t `action thru obj(CA ~middle, RA ~outside)'
with *i `go at some angle' *ti RAS `go-out,shoot-out'
kwate `shoot' NP
*w `go around, on ground (CA=bounded) (RA=long dist)'
with *a `unknown' *wa RAM `look-for' wate `look for' NP
*w `penetrate(CA)/come-out(RA)'
with *e `volume sealed off by a plane' *we CAD `go-into'
wukopu-wunu `cross field, stream'
*y `go above'
with *o `remote' *yo CAD `rise' yotse `fly' NP
*y `be at edge'
with *a `energy release' *ya RA `push,bump,go-with-effort'
manu'ya `bump hand' NP



*c `surround,push-together(CA)/break(RA)'
with *o `sphere or cylinder shape' *co RA `leave-a-broken-end'
kootsoo `cow' NP
*h `hold w/surface/come out'
with *o `under, down' *ho CAM `dig,go-down,go-low'
hooe-du `ant'
*k `hold(connect)/cut'
with *i `small' *ki RA `make-drops,spots,holes'
take `make holes, spots' NP
*k `push on surf(CA)/slide apart(RA)'
with *o `under, down'
*ko RA `slide' sugogoe `slide, avalanche' NP
*l `decompose'
with *o `effects of energy release' *lo RAM `heat'
no'ho `bake, roast' NP
*m `associate with/disassociate'
with *e `possessed,personal reference'
*me U `you{PL},them' umu `them' NP
*n `grow/break off(CA gradual,RA abrupt)'
with *a `REAL/increase intensity with time'
*na CAS `grown,growing,rise-up' nanna `grows' NP
*k `hold(connect)/--(cut)'
with *i `go at some angle' *gi RAS `interract,go-out'
takange `make noise with foot' NP
*p `fill up(CA)/split off(RA)'
with *i `go at some angle' *pi RA `drink'
hebe `drink' NP
*s `hold together(m.same)/scatter'
with *a `energy release' *sa CA `bark' esa `wolf' NP
*s `gather/disperse thru surface'
with *a `combination of diff entities'
*sa RAM `spread,separate,scatter' koosa `pants' NP
*t `hold down/lift up'
with *o `under, down' *to CAD `go-under' tooha `under' NP
*t `divide,break'
with *o `effects of energy release' *to CAM `grind'
toosoo `grind' NP
*w `accumulate/cut into'
with *i `REAL/intensity rises then falls'
*wi CAM `be-greasy,dirty' wesoko `greasy like mechanic' NP
*y `mix/break out'
with *e `volume sealed off by a plane'
*ye CA `move,break-out,mix' mayu'a `mix, stir' NP



The following table shows the usage of the different consonant and vowel morpheme sets. Low numbers in the table (either entries or sums in either rows or columns) may show weak points in the analysis. The table also gives an idea of which sets of morphemes can be combined.

|action adj body direct- energy material, shape|
| ion loc,time |

|action/creation| 33 6 2 3 11 18 6 |
|body | 6 8 2 8 14 10 |
|combination | 31 6 11 5 10 31 |
|position | 29 3 22 2 12 36 |
|unspecified | 2 1 1 2 6 1 |

The following is a listing of the syllable morphemes that are presently identified. They are grouped under the consonant morpheme which forms them, and are listed with the vowel morpheme which is used to form them.

' certain-state,unspecified
'a L forehead,high a-high,tall,straight
'a L something a-undetermined
'i U my i-close
'i ADJ big,much i-REAL
'i Q strip i-small area around c of ref
'i RA maim,hurt i-heal/hurt
'o L small-particles o-effects of energy release
'o U him o-remote
'o L internal-body o-in body
'o ADJ brown o-effects of energy release
'o CAL there,then o-remote
'e U you{1} e-possessed,pers ref
'e CA be-motionless,sleep e-action on&off
c go back & forth in area parallel to surface
ca RAM exchange,move-or-go-back-and-forth a-REAL
ce CAS go-back-and-forth,double e-small change at time
ce RAS go-around-whole-area e-small change at time
ce CAD change-direction e-obj/act at angle
co RAD back-and-forth,cover-whole-area o-complete
c go perpendicular thru area
ci CAM emerge,poke,stab i-small area around c of ref
ci RAM suck i-small area around c of ref
ci RAD contact-ground-or-main-area i-small area around c of ref
c duplicate,keep doing
ca M force a-undetermined
ci AT DIM i-small
ci RA noise-made-by-hitting i make-understandable-by-senses
ci ADV really i-REAL
ci OS past-time,thru-time i-REAL
c surround,push-together/break
ca CA hold a-REAL
ca RA remove,take-apart a-comb of diff entities
co RA leave-a-broken-end o-sphere or cylinder shape
co CA push-down,squeeze o-impulse type action
co RAD bring-together o-impulse type action
c be-at-body-extremity{time-or-space}
ca RA kill,destroy,disfigure a-stress/kill/restore
ca L hand-with-fingers a-comb of diff entities
ci L finger,sharp-point i-small area around c of ref
co L head o-sphere or cylinder shape
h action {constrain around layer },to/from layer
ha OS reach-surface a-REAL
he CA constrain,restrict e-volume sealed off by a plane
he L breeze e-action on&off
he L tied-object e-action on&off
he RAM cause-travel-or-movement e-small change at time
hi CA loosen i-small area around c of ref
hi RA attack,interact i-small area around c of ref
ho L trunk,main-body o-sphere or cylinder shape
ho ADJ low o-under, down
ho CAM make-layer o-remote
ho CA confine-w/-layer-or-boundary o-remote
h do,be,make,test,try-out
ha U QUESTION,what a-unknown
ha CAM be,make,do a-REAL
hi L something i-REAL
hi RA physical-sensation{sight,smell} i-communication by energy
ho RAS strong o-impulse type action
ho CAS fail o-complete
h hold w/surface/come out
ha RAD come-out,remove a-comb of diff entities
hi RAM come-out-from,push-out i-small area around c of ref
ho CAM dig,go-down,go-low o-under, down
ho OS flow,go-smoothly o-sphere or cylinder shape
ho ADV smooth o-sphere or cylinder shape
k go/be/hold up
ka CAL be-above,over a-high,tall,straight
ka RAD be-still,remain,sit a-high,tall,straight
ke RA support e-obj/act at angle
ke CAD stand,be-positioned e-obj/act at angle
ko CAD go-above o-remote
k do to produce state{of vowel}
ka RA go a-undetermined
ka CAS sound a-energy release
ki CA come-toward i-close
ki RAS give,get-rid-of i-small area around c of ref
ke ? CAUS e-small change at time
ke ? BEN e-possessed,pers ref
ko ADJ noisy o-effects of energy release
ko RA make-inactive,kill o-dwindle down,expire
ko CA twist,rotation-from-inside o-sphere or cylinder shape
ko CA bury,dig o-under, down
ko L fire,heat o-effects of energy release
k hold{connect}/cut
ka CA break-apart,cut a-comb of diff entities
ka CA eat,gnaw a-be/make soft/flexible
ka L mountain-with-cliffs a-high,tall,straight
ka OS change-shape a-REAL
ka ADJ straight a-high,tall,straight
ka RA dispose-of,trash a-comb of diff entities
ka CAD have a-undetermined
ka CAS extend,connect a-comb of diff entities
ke ADJ different e-small change at time
ki RA make-drops,spots,holes i-small
ki RA cut,open-up,scoop-out i-REAL
ki RAM make-thin-or-lack i-small area around c of ref
ki Q thin i-small area around c of ref
ki CAS fill-up,put-together,assemble i-REAL
ko CA break,crack o-impulse type action
k push on surf/slide apart
ke CAM grasp e-small change at time
ko RAM sex o-in body
ko Q irreg-shaped-layer o-sphere or cylinder shape
ko RA slide o-under, down
ko RA follow-contour o-sphere or cylinder shape
k high on body
ka L neck a-high,tall,straight
ke L teeth e-volume sealed off by a plane
ko L face,front o-sense
l surround
la CAS fasten-around,surround a-undetermined
l move around
lo,no CAS carry,move o-remote
l decompose
li RA be-small i-small
lo RAM heat o-effects of energy release
m come out, go in
ma L hand,palm a-comb of diff entities
ma CAL mid-DEM a-undetermined
ma RA point a-high,tall,straight
ma RAS go a-undetermined
mi RA go,be-active i-REAL
mi RA put-in-new-location i-small area around c of ref
mo ADJ first o-impulse type action
mo CAM walk,move o-remote
mo CA lead,shoot o-impulse type action
m cover,go-around-surface,be-in-middle
ma CAM squeeze a-REAL
ma CAL on a-undetermined
ma AT cover,close a-REAL
mi CA stand,be-contained-in-volume i-small area around c of ref
mo CAD go-to-middle,point-where-divides o-remote
mo CAS twist,be-curved o-sphere or cylinder shape
mo RA cover-round-obj o-sphere or cylinder shape
m cause/initiate intransitive action
ma C causative a-REAL
ma M make a-REAL
me CAS turn,change e-small change at time
mi CAM say i-communication by energy
m associate with/disassociate
ma OS with a-comb of diff entities
me U you{PL},them e-possessed,pers ref
me RAS kind,type e-essence
me RAD bring-into-contact,occasional-contact e-action on&off
mi Q and-others i-REAL
mo CA live o-in body
m stimulate body
ma RA taste a-unknown
ma CAM touch,feel a-unknown
ma CAM scare a-stress/kill/restore
mo RA old,wear-out,use-up,deplete o-dwindle down,expire
mo CAS see,realize o-sense
mo L facial-features o-sense
n include whole-area
ni CAD cover-with i-small area around c of ref
no Q all,anything o-complete
no CAM roll,spin,circle,round o-sphere or cylinder shape
n go thru/random
na CAD move-obj/person-away-from a-comb of diff entities
na CAM stick-out,be-visible a-high,tall,straight
na ADJ male a-high,tall,straight
ne CAM stand e-obj/act at angle
n be in state during action
ne CA be-non-moving e-action on&off
ni RAS do,be-in-state i-REAL
no ADV for-a-while o-impulse type action
no RAM hard-effort-for-while o-impulse type action
n grow/break off
na CAS grown,growing,rise-up a-REAL
na RAM remove a-REAL
na CA burn a heat,light
ne L INST-to-break-or-separate e-volume sealed off by a plane
ni CAS pile-up,contact i-REAL
ni AT release i-REAL
no L egg o-sphere or cylinder shape
no RAS combine with,accompany,be-with o-remote
n act on self
na R RECIPROCAL a-comb of diff entities
na CAM accompany a-comb of diff entities
ne L person e-essence
ne L self{PL} e-essence
ne U first-person-singular e-possessed,pers ref
ni W want i-communication by energy
ni CAM say i-communication by energy
ni L speak i-communication by energy
g {ng} go inside/random
ga RAS move,fluid-motion,move-through a-REAL
g {ng} go down
go RAS go-down,bring-down o-under, down
g {ng} produce state of vowel
ga AT rest,restore a-stress/kill/restore
ga RA make-noise a-energy release
g {ng} hold{connect}/cut
gi RAS interract,go-out i-go at some angle
gi CAS contact,hold-together i-REAL
p cross-surface,in,out
pa ADJ high,big a-high,tall,straight
pi CAL back,bottom,inside i-close
po CA through-hole o-sphere or cylinder shape
p along-surface
pa RAS cover-surface a-REAL
pe RAS across,go-through e-volume sealed off by a plane
pi OS live-in{anim},lie-in{inanim} i-small area around c of ref
pi RAM horiz-force,motion,position i-go at some angle
po RA write o-effects of energy release
p cause repetitively/initiate
pa OS action-realized a-REAL
pe RAS change e-small change at time
pe AT repetitive e-action on&off
pe OS cause-to-happen,essence e-essence
pi C initiate,start i-small
pi CA buzz i-communication by energy
pi CA shake,wiggle,be-active i-small area around c of ref
po CAD back-and-forth o-remote
po L road o-remote
po RA cut-or-make-trail o-remote
p protect/destroy
pa CA hit,slap a-REAL
pa RA break,destroy a-REAL
pi CAM decompose i-small
po CA heal,rescue o-in body
po CAS cover,protect o-in body
p fill up/leak out
pa Q volume a-REAL
pa L water a-be/make soft/flexible
pe CAM fill-up-surface e-small change at time
pi RA drink i-go at some angle
po CAM slow-flow,leak,splatter-out,separate o-dwindle down,expire
p bring-together/split off/be separate
pa CAD together a-comb of diff entities
pa CAS call a-energy release
pa RAM pick-up a-high,tall,straight
pe U it,him e-possessed,pers ref
pi ADJ good,sweet i-REAL
pi CAD split,come-apart i-go at some angle
po CA twist,spin,rotate-fr/outside-curve o-sphere or cylinder shape
po RAD cylinder-shape-come-out o-sphere or cylinder shape
p act on body surface
pe L skin,fur,surface-layer e-volume sealed off by a plane
pe L blood e-essence
pi L hips,back-part-of-body i-go at some angle
po RA see o-sense
po L eye o-sense
po CA mouth-breath o-sphere or cylinder shape
s be above/on surface
sa ADJ wet a-be/make soft/flexible
sa RAD contact-edge,cover a-high,tall,straight
sa CAD go-above a-comb of diff entities
se CAD hold/lie-on-edge e-obj/act at angle
si CAS make-flat i-small area around c of ref
si ADJ flat i-small area around c of ref
s extrude thru surface
si CAS control-cylindrical-shape i-small area around c of ref
si L intestines,cylinder,navel i-small area around c of ref
so CAS extrude o-sphere or cylinder shape
so L extrusion o-sphere or cylinder shape
s be/make same/consistent
sa CA smash a-be/make soft/flexible
sa ? always a-REAL
se CAM exist-for-while e-action on&off
se Q one e-essence
si OS be-inactive,avoid-action i-small area around c of ref
so RAS again o-impulse type action
s hold together{m.same}/scatter
sa CA cook,heat-liquid a-energy release
sa CA bark a-energy release
sa CAM insert a-comb of diff entities
so CAS get-rid-of,drive-off o-impulse type action
so CAS consume o-complete
so RA pile-up o-sphere or cylinder shape
s gather/disperse thru surface
sa RAM spread,separate,scatter a-comb of diff entities
se CA spread-out e-action on&off
si RA spread i-REAL
si RA break-or-modify-surface i-small area around c of ref
so CAM breathe o-in body
s perceive mentally
se CAS numb e-action on&off
se ADJ cold e-discomfort fr/energy change
se ADJ bad e-essence
si CA be-hard-to-see i make-understandable-by-senses
so L think o-impulse type action
so C cause-mentally o-impulse type action
so W want o-impulse type action
t action thru obj
ta CAL vertical-motion-or-position a-high,tall,straight
ta CAS lift,raise a-high,tall,straight
ta CA push-through a-REAL
ta RAD away a-REAL
ta CAD into a-REAL
ta RAM cover a-REAL
te RA release-after-holding e-volume sealed off by a plane
te CAS remove e-volume sealed off by a plane
ti RAS go-out,shoot-out i-go at some angle
to CAD up-and-out o-sphere or cylinder shape
to L hole o-sphere or cylinder shape
to CAS contain-in-cylinder o-sphere or cylinder shape
to CAD through o-impulse type action
to CAM push-hard o-impulse type action
t use energy to change/create
ta CA light,heat,appear a-energy release
te L supernatural e-essence
te CA believe e-essence
te CA heat,roast,bake e-small change at time
to RA make o-impulse type action
t intensify,duplicate,do-completely
ta AT repeated-or-plural-action a-REAL
ta SUF PL-OBJ a-comb of diff entities
te ADV completely,excess e-very much,excessive
to ADJ black,dark o-effects of energy release
to RAD go-all-over o-remote
t hold down/lift up
ta L foot,leg a-high,tall,straight
te CA sleep e-action on&off
te RAM rise-up e-volume sealed off by a plane
te CAM hold e-obj/act at angle
te L dirt,ground e-volume sealed off by a plane
te L rock e-possessed,pers ref
ti RA hold-up,exalt i-small area around c of ref
to RA lift-round-thing o-sphere or cylinder shape
to CAD go-under o-under, down
t divide,break
ta RA break,divide a-comb of diff entities
te L mouth e-volume sealed off by a plane
te ADJ small e-very much,excessive
to CAM grind o-effects of energy release
to CA scatter,separate,disperse o-remote
t act regarding self/person
ta U me-and-you a Q
te CA possession,ownership,have e-possessed,pers ref
te L self{singular} e-possessed,pers ref
te U UNSP e-essence
ti U us{OBJ} i-close
to CA stoop o-sphere or cylinder shape
w go around, on ground
wa CA spread,move/go-around a-REAL
wa RAM look-for a-unknown
we CA slip e-small change at time
we RAD up-and-down e-obj/act at angle
we RA move,carry e-obj/act at angle
wi CAM wiggle i-small area around c of ref
wi CAD change-path,opposite-directions i-go at some angle
w penetrate/come-out
wa RAM remove a-comb of diff entities
wa CAS penetrate,be-in a-REAL
wa RAD go-or-pass-through a-REAL
we CAD go-into e-volume sealed off by a plane
we L wind e-action on&off
wi RAD come-down-or-out,remove i-small area around c of ref
wi CAM sting,be-sharp,hit i-small area around c of ref
wi ADJ sharp i-small area around c of ref
wo CAD come-into,against o-impulse type action
w length of action/obj/time
wa RAD reach-top a-high,tall,straight
wa OS wait,complete action a-REAL
wa ADV all-during-a-time-period a-REAL
wa RAL be-far,far a-REAL
we L length-of-object,stick,rope e-essence
we L male-sex-organ e-obj/act at angle
wi CAS restore i-heal/hurt
wo CA make-long-rounded-obj o-sphere or cylinder shape
wo CA make-line o-effects of energy release
wo L length-of-body-or-part o-in body
w accumulate/cut into
wa Q two a-comb of diff entities
wa RAS come-up,increase a-REAL
wi CAM be-greasy,dirty i-REAL
wi AT be-in-position-or-state-after-action i-REAL
wi RAS have-amount-or-layer-after-change i-REAL
w action-with-intellect-or-emotion
wa CAM recognize a-unknown
wa CAM cry,express-emotion a-energy release
wi CAS say i-communication by energy
wo L head,top-part o-sphere or cylinder shape
wo CA make-noise o-effects of energy release
y go above
ye RA push-down e-obj/act at angle
yo CAD rise o-remote
y be at edge
ya CAL be-at-edge-of-time-or-space,nearDEM a-REAL
ya RA push,bump,go-with-effort a-energy release
ya OS cover-surface,enclose a-REAL
ye CAD touch-edge e-small change at time
y temporary action
ya CA say a-energy release
ye ? be-inactive e-action on&off
ye AT repeated-movement e-action on&off
yo ADV for-while o-impulse type action
yo RAM repetitive-action o-impulse type action
yo CAM small-amt o-dwindle down,expire
y mix/break out
ya RAM go-fast a-REAL
ye CA move,break-out,mix e-volume sealed off by a plane
yi RAM material-comes-out i-REAL
yo RAM go-fast,jerky,go-touching-surface o-impulse type action
y create/destroy life,life forces
ya CAS stress,die,destroy a-stress/kill/restore
ye CA believe e-essence
yo CA warm o-effects of energy release
yo CA make-alive o-in body



Miller listed kw and w as separate phonemes in Proto Uto-Aztecan. In Northern Paiute, they are fortis/lenis variations of the same phoneme. If they are indeed separate, I have not yet been able to sort them out. Hence all of my morphemes are listed as w. Also the o and u vowels are listed as separate. There is so much vowel harmony between these two vowels, especially in Northern Paiute, that I have not been able to separate them. They are all listed as o. The variation the meaning of each phoneme over different slots has not been completely worked out. Both the vowel and consonant morphemes have their meanings vary according to slots. Therefore isolating which variation is due to which morpheme is not trivial.



Dick, Russell, Ed Williams and Arie Poldervaart. 1987. Yerington Paiute Grammar. Yerington, Nevada. Yerington Paiute Tribe.

Miller, Wick. 1967. Uto-Aztecan Cognate Sets. University of California Publications in Linguistics Volume 48. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Miller, Wick, Kevin Hegg & Cindy High. 1987. Computerized Data Base for Uto-Aztecan Cognate Sets. May, 1987. Salt Lake City.

Poldervaart, Arie. 1984. Northern Paiute Subanalysis. Informal Notes. Presented at Friends of Uto-Aztecan Conference.

Poldervaart, Arie. 1987. Proto Uto-Aztecan Subanalysis, Part I Body Parts. Informal Notes. Presented at Friends of Uto-Aztecan Conference.

Poldervaart, Arie. 1988. Proto Uto-Aztecan Subanalysis, Part II Miscellaneous Nouns. Informal Notes. Presented at Friends of Uto-Aztecan Conference.